عنوان مقاله [English]
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term CLA supplementation on fat burning rate during exercise in obese women.
Method: The subjects of this study were 10 obese women (age 34.7±4.7 yrs, BMI 34.2±4.8 kg/m2, and weight 83.1±1.9 kg). Subjects consumed 1.5 g/day CLA for 7 days. An incremental exercise test on a treadmill was performed before and after the supplementation period to measure the maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and corresponding intensity (FATmax). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test for measuring the serum levels of Glycerol. Paired t-test and ANOVA with repeated measures were used to compare the means of variables.
Results: There was no significant difference in mean FATmax between before and after CLA supplementation (p=0.655). Also, no significant difference was observed in MFO between before and after CLA supplementation (p=0.133). CLA supplementation after one exercise session did not have a significant effect on plasma glycerol; However, the interactive effect of these two factors was significant and increased the glycerol levels.
Conclusion: In general, the findings of this study showed that CLA supplementation, at least in short-term period, does not improve the fat burning rate during exercise in obese women.
Achten J, Jeukendrup AE.(2004). Optimizing fat oxidation through exercise and diet. Nutrition;20(7-8):716-727
2-Besnier F, Lenclume V, Gérardin P, Fianu A, Martinez J, Naty N.(2015). Individualized Exercise Training at Maximal Fat Oxidation Combined with Fruit and Vegetable-Rich Diet in Overweight or Obese Women: The LIPOXmax- Réunion Randomized Controlled Trial. PloS one.;10(11):e0139246.
3-Brown J, Boysen M, Chung S, Fabiyi O, Morrision R, Mandrup S, McIntosh M (2004).Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induces human adipocyte delipidation: autocrine/ paracrine regulation of MEK/ERK signaling by adipocytokines. J Biol Chem;279:26735–26747.
4-Bulut S, Bodur E, Turnagol H. (2013). Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and exercise on postheparin lipoprotein lipase, butyrylcholinesterase, blood lipid profile and glucose metabolism in young men. Chem Biol Interact; 203(1):323-329.
5-Chung, S., Brown, J. M., Sandberg, M. B., & McIntosh, M. (2005). Trans-10, cis-12 CLA increases adipocyte lipolysis and alters lipid droplet-associated proteins: role of mTOR and ERK signaling. Journal of lipid research, 46(5), 885-895.
6-Dostal, A. M., Arikawa, A., Espejo, L., & Kurzer, M. S. (2015). Long-Term Supplementation of Green Tea Extract Does Not Modify Adiposity or Bone Mineral Density in a Randomized Trial of Overweight and Obese Postmenopausal Women–4. The Journal of nutrition, 146(2): 256-264.
7-Ghahreman D, Wang R, Boutcher Y, Boutcher S(2015). Green Tea, Intermittent Sprinting Exercise, and Fat Oxidation. Nutrition 7:5646-5663.
8-Halima, B. H., Sonia, G., Sarra, K., Houda, B. J., Fethi, B. S., & Abdallah, A. (2018). Apple cider vinegar attenuates oxidative stress and reduces the risk of obesity in high-fat-fed male Wistar rats. Journal of medicinal food, 21(1):70-80.
9-Haghiac, M., Yang, X. H., Presley, L., Smith, S., Dettelback, S., Minium, J & Hauguel-de Mouzon, S. (2015). Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces inflammation in obese pregnant women: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. PLoS One, 10(9): e0137309.
10-Horowitz, J. F., Mora-Rodriguez R., Byerley, L. O., and Coyle, E. F. (1997). Lipolytic suppression following carbohydrate ingestion limits fat oxidation during exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 273: E768-E775.
11-Jiang, J., Wolk, A., Vessby, B. (1999). Relation between the intake of milk fatand the occurrence of conjugated linoleic acid in human adipose tissue. Am J Clin Nutr.70:21-7.
12-Kim, H., Kim, M., Kojima, N., Fujino, K., Hosoi, E., Kobayashi, H & Yoshida, H. (2016). Exercise and nutritional supplementation on community-dwelling elderly Japanese women with sarcopenic obesity: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 17(11): 1011-1019.
13-Kennedy, A., Martinez, K., Schmidt, S., Mandrup, S., LaPoint, K., & McIntosh, M. (2010). Antiobesity mechanisms of action of conjugated linoleic acid. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 21(3): 171-179.
14-LaRosa PC, Miner J, Xia Y, Zhou Y, Kachman S, Fromm ME.(2006.) Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid causes inflammation and delipidation of white adipose tissue in mice: a microarray and histological analysis. Physiol Genomics;27:282–294.
15- Laso N, Brugué E, Vidal J, Ros E, Arnaiz JA, Carné X, Vidal S, Mas S, Deulofeu R, Lafuente A (2007). Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) on body composition and metabolic syndrome components. Br J Nutr. 98(4):860-7.
16-Marzouki H, Gmada N, Farhani Z, Hssin N, Shephard R, Bouhlel E.(2015) Crossover and maximal fat oxidation points during running and cycling in sedentary subjects. Sci Sports :30(4):196-203.
17-Michishita T, Kobayashi S, Katsuya T, et al.(2012) Evaluation of the antiobesity effects of an amino acid mixture and conjugated linoleic acid on exercising healthy over weight Human an: a randomize, doubleblind, placebo – controlled trial. J Int Med Res; 38(3):844-59.
18-Mohebbi H., Rahmani-nia F., Shadmehri S. (2009). The Effect of Type of Exercise Activity on the mfo and fatmax fat oxidation in young women. Olympic J., 17(3):139-151. [in Persian]
19-Musaiger, A. O. (2011). Overweight and obesity in eastern mediterranean region: prevalence and possible causes. Journal of obesity. doi:10.1155/2011/407237.
20-Namazi, N., Irandoost, P., Larijani, B., & Azadbakht, L. (2019). The effects of supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on anthropometric indices and body composition in overweight and obese subjects: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 22:1-14
21-Pachikian, B. D., Druart, C., Catry, E., Bindels, L. B., Neyrinck, A. M., Larondelle, Y., & Delzenne, N. M. (2018). Implication of trans-11, trans-13 conjugated linoleic acid in the development of hepatic steatosis. PloS one, 13(2): e0192447.
22-Panahi, S., Gaeini A. A., Ravasi A. A., Fayaz Milani R. The effect of order of exercise intensity on metabolic responses in non-athlete female students. Olympic, 2006. 14(2): 34-96. [in Persian]
23-Rohani H., Damirchi A., Hasan-Nia S., Rohani Z. Comparison of fat oxidation rate in rang of running exercise intensities in untrained college students male. Olympic Journal, 45:121-130, 2009. [in Persian]
24-Rohani, H., Safari Mousavi S. S., Gholamian S., Farzaneh E. (2016). Comparison the maximal fat oxidation and Fatmax in trained and untrained women. Sport Physiology 7(28): 31-44. [in Persian]
25-Roozbeh, B. and H. Mohebbi (2017). Comparison of Different Timing Effect of Carbohydrate Intake Before Exercise on MFO And Fatmax in Endurance Runners. Sport Physiology 9(34): 147-162. [in Persian]
26- Seyedi, A., Attarzadeh Hosseini S. R. (2018). Effects of One Session of Progressive Training after Whey Protein Consumption on the MFO, Fatmax, and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Women. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility 21(1): 60-69. [in Persian]
27-Van Blarigan, E. L., Fuchs, C. S., Niedzwiecki, D., Zhang, S., Saltz, L. B., Mayer, R. J& Atienza, D. (2018). Association of survival with adherence to the American Cancer Society Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines for Cancer Survivors after colon cancer diagnosis: the CALGB 89803/Alliance trial. JAMA oncology, 4(6): 783-790.
28-West, D.B., DeLany, J.P., Camet, P.M., Blohm, F., Truett, A.A., and Scimeca, J. (1998) Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Body Fat and Energy Metabolism in the Mouse, Am. J. Physiol. 275, R667–R672.
29-Xu X, Storkson J, Kim S, Sugimoto K, Park Y, Pariza MW.(2003) Short-term intake of conjugated linoleic acid inhibits lipoprotein lipase and glucose metabolism but does not enhance lipolysis in mouse adipose tissue. J Nutr;133:663–667
30- Zambell, K. L., Keim, N. L., Van Loan, M. D., Gale, B., Benito, P., Kelley, D. S., & Nelson, G. J. (2000). Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in humans: effects on body composition and energy expenditure. Lipids, 35(7): 777-782.